Canneci N'de Band of Lipan Apache,Inc.

From Texas Plains to Louisiana Prairies

 (Above)Map of 1700's by French listing the Canneci/Canci/Padouka all labels of Lipan by the French Traders 

 

Time Line:

didehiih bike'nah(The people their trail)

1699- French Province of Louisiana had been established.

1706-Juan del Ulibarri reports to New Mexican officials about the selling of Apache women and children to the French whom were called "Spanish of the East" by the Indians.

-Chitimachas began to be taken as slaves, mostly women and children.

- French also attempted to open trade with Apaches themselves, the very people who were now losing relatives to French and Spanish enslavement.

-French settlers and traders by and large came from Canada rather than France and brought a social and cultural heritage worked by intimate associations with Indian peoples.

-French lobbied their imperial superiors for permission to trade Indian slaves for enslaved African Americans from West Indies, yet enslaved Indian women remained fixtures of Indian trade and French family life in outpost settlements.

1716- Frenchmen had established a military post near Natchitoches Indians named Fort St.Jean Baptiste aux Natchitoches.

1717-1721-First African slaves brought into Louisiana.

1718-Chitimachas succeeded in having a negotiation of peace with the French suspending them as targets for slavery.

1719- Subsidiary trading post built further upriver among the Nasonis and Caddo band. Followed later by the Rapides, Avoyelles, Ouachita, Opelousas, and two Atakapa posts (known today as St.Martinville and the other Franklin).

1724- Etienne de Bourgmont returned a 22yr. old woman and teenage boy of 16yrs. whomed he purchased from Kansas Indians back to their villages among plains Apaches. Trying to build trade relations with them.

-Apache chief makes a speech to the French talking about the lost of people to the slave trade in Louisiana.

-French posts in Western Louisiana had become, and would remain throughout the eighteenth century, nuclei slave trade in Apache slaves brought to them by Caddos, Wichitas, and Comanches.

1726- Sieur Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville writes that the Wichitas are better warriors than Apaches and willingly obliged French needs by trading to them the enemy women and children they took captive in war.

- Caddo, Wichita, and Comanche found female Indian captives to be as valuable as hides and horses in French markets in Natchitoches and other Western Louisiana posts.

-Caddo, Wichita, and Comanche men traded only captive Indian women and children to Frenchmen (captive men were usually tortured and killed) while Frenchmen sought few Indian slaves other than women.

-Predominance of "Canneci" Apache women among the enslaved Indian population in Louisiana became so pronounced by mid-century that governor of Louisiana, Louis Billouart de Kerlerac, identified it as the primary hindrance to any hopes of adding Apache nations to the list of Louisiana's native trade allies.

1754-1760's-The arrival of the first Acadians whom came to be known as Cajuns.

1769- Spain outlaws the enslavement, sale, and trade of Indians in Louisiana. Prompting some to marry their slaves to keep them legally even though as a wife in servitude, some slaves were freed, still many others continued to be in captivity.

1770- Frenchmen formed marital unions with their trading partners and sexual unions with the captive Apache women who were the objects of their trade.

-European Settlements and Plantations began spreading in Louisiana.

-French missionary Francois le Maire bemoaned the trade in "savage female slaves" who though reputedly bought to perform domestic services, in actuality became concubines. Historian Marcel Giruad stated such practices had become established usage among the French at all levels, from Gov. Lepinay, to a Company Officer, and from Crozat's "trade" Agents to a Private Soldier.

July 17, 1774- Fray Miguel Santa Maria y Silva, the leading Franciscan missionary stationed in the Mission District of Los Adaes writes a report on the severe trafficking of Indian slaves.

1780- At Posts in Louisiana enslaved Indian women always outnumbered their male counterparts by more than two to one. The men most often the grown children of the women either brought or born in slavery by their mothers.

-Marriage and baptism records were testaments to continued role of enslaved Apache women as concubines, wives, and mothers throughout eighteenth century. Official censuses and sacramental records only hinted at the numbers though listing almost 200 Indian women and children in the Natchitoches area over the century-also offer only a partial accounting.

1790-1794-Handful of slaves sued successfully on grounds of Indian identity(their own or their mother's) these were heard in New Orleans. In outpost settlements far from the urban centers this could not happen.

1803-Almost 1/4 of the native-born European population in Northwest Louisiana counted Indian slaves among their ancestry, and sixty percent of that number claimed descent directly from an enslaved Indian parent or grandparent.

1807-1972-Interracial marriages were prohibited in Louisiana.

1810-Prairie Maronne was settled by Coco and Family along with refugee, emancipated and escaped indian peoples, they occupied this area for 40yrs or More before the Vigilantes.

1810-1915-Indians and Africans identified as colored, they were also unable to bear free children under the laws of the State of Louisiana.

Late Feb.-Early March 1859-Vigilantes rode into Cocoville and exiled elderly Chief Coco, his wife and six tribal citizens of his clan, They began with young Joseph Auguste Goodbear who was a prominent member. The Tribe was reported to be "scattered".

1865-1920-White and Black racial classification established by Law in Louisiana disenfranchising many Indians Full-blood and Mixed.

1870-1894-Reconstruction period that the legislature made interracial marriage temporarily legal.

1908-Curtis Act Abolished tribal jurisdiction over Indian lands at the time, creating a private property model among the "5 civilized tribes" and among other indigenous groups in the South and Southeastern United States, further contributing to increased displacement of mix-blood Indian communities in Louisiana.

1915-(Act 220; Louisiana Revisal Statute 9:201) changed the racial designation of Indian women or mixed White-Indian as Indian, allowed Whites to marry Indian women and take possession of Indian land and property in Lousiana through Land Cessions. On the other hand those Indian women or Mixed Black-Indian re-classified as African or Black were stripped of lands they may have previously held because they were considered a different racial group from both Whites and Blacks.

Many Indians have mixed with the Creoles of Color (the only group they could legally marry besides other Indians until 1915 in Louisiana) that when Creoles of Color were suddenly redefined as "Black" in 1915, so were the tens of thousands of Indians and part-Indians among them.

 

 

 

Time Line compiled from:

Andrew Jolivette's : Louisiana Creoles, Cultural Recovery and Mixed-Race Native American Identity

Dana Bowker Lee's: Indian Slavery in Lower Louisiana

Juliana Barr's: A Currency in Women: The Gendered Heart of an Infamous Flesh Trade in Indians